Öğretmenlerin örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışları ile yöneticilerin liderlik stilleri arasındaki ilişki
Bu çalışmanın amacı, ilköğretim okullarında görev yapan öğretmenlerin örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışları ile yöneticilerin liderlik stilleri arasındaki ilişkiyi belirlemektir. Örgütsel vatandaşlık kavramı çalışanların görev tanımlamaları arasında yer almayan ve tamamen çalışanın kendi özgür iradesiyle yaptığı, iş ortamında çalışanların iş doyumunu ve verimliliğini etkileyen davranışlar olarak ifade edilmektedir. Çalışanların örgütsel vatandaşlığını kazanmalarında yöneticilerin sergiledikleri liderlik stilinin önemli bir yeri vardır. Tarama modelindeki araştırmanın çalışma grubu Samsun il merkezinde görev yapan ve araştırmaya katılmaya gönüllü olan 204 ilköğretim okulu öğretmeninden oluşmaktadır. Araştırmanın verileri “Örgütsel Vatandaşlık Davranışları Ölçeği” ile “Okul Yöneticilerinin Liderlik Stilleri Ölçeği” ile toplanmıştır. Verilerin analizinde betimsel istatistikler, t testi, Kruskal Wallis, Mann Whitney U ile korelasyon analizi kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre, katılımcıların okullarında örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışları ile ilgili olarak olumlu görüşlere sahip oldukları görülmüştür. Katılımcıların görüşleri cinsiyet, branş, eğitim durumu ve kıdem değişkenlerine göre anlamlı farklılıklar göstermiştir. Öğretmenlerin sergiledikleri örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışları ile yöneticilerin göstermiş oldukları dönüşümcü ve sürdürümcü liderlik stilleri arasında pozitif ve anlamlı bir ilişki vardır. Çalışanların kendilerini çalıştıkları örgüte ait hissetmelerinde ve daha verimli çalışmalarında yöneticilerin rolü yadsınamaz. Bu nedenle yöneticilerin bir amaca sahip, değişime açık, etik kararlar verebilen ve çalışanların fikirlerine değer veren bireyler olmaları önemlidir.Background. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) comprises extrarole behaviors that are not within role but nevertheless of great importance for efficient processes in organizations (Organ, 1988; Podsakoff et al.,1997). Literature discusses different conceptions of OCB (Podsakoff et al., 2000). In Deckop et al.‘s study (Deckop, Mangel & Cirka, 1999), OCB consists of the following three facets: (1) helping behavior, (2) sportsmanship, and (3) conscientiousness. Hence, sportsmanship may raise the attractiveness of group membership for high performers. With increasing follower conscientiousness, leaders may tend to empower their followers and, thus, raise their performance motivation. Accordingly, in a comprehensive literature review, Podsakoff et al. (2000) found OCB to predict followers‘ performance. Bass (1985) introduced a theory of “transformational“ leadership that was based on Burns‘ (1978) classification of transactional and transformational political leaders (Geyer & Steyrer, 1998). Bass‘s (1985) conceptualization of transactional and transformational leadership included seven leadership factors: charisma, inspirational, intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration, contingent reward, management by exception and laissez-faire leadership.Transformational leadership is based on increasing the level of consciousness of followers about the value of the output and upgrading their success. Transactional leadership, on the other hand, is based on the expected reward in return for the obedience of the followers with their effort, productivity and loyalty (Bass & Riggio, 2006). One of the main differences between two leadership styles is: transformational leadership style is directed to future, innovation, change and reformation. On the contrary; transactional leadership style is based on past and traditions. Transformational leaders create their organizational culture with the existing rules, procedures and norms. The leaders who behave in the form of transactional leadership style use their authority in rewarding their followers by giving money and status so that the followers could make more effort whereas transformational leaders try to inspire their followers for a mission and orient them to a dream or a vision (Eren, 2001). Unlike transactional leaders, transformational leaders inspire their followers, give them intellectual stimulation and show concern for each individual. Transformational leaders are guiding their followers and they can compromise more easily (Bass, 1999).Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the leadership styles of the school administrators and the organizational citizenship behaviors of teachers. Method. The research was a survey model study. The study group of the research has been formed with 204 teachers who work in schools in Samsun city centre and they have taken part in the research voluntarily. “Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Scale“ (Taşdan & Yılmaz, 2008) and “The Leadership Style Questionnaire“ (Oğuz, 2008) were used as the data collecting instruments in the study. Descriptive statistics, t test, Kruskal Wallis have been used in the analysis of the data which have been collected. The participants have been selected randomly.52.5 % of the participants are female and 47.5 % of them are male.42.2 % of the participants are class teachers and 57.8 % of them are branch teachers.25.5 % of the teachers have bachelor‘s degrees, 20.1 % have graduated from educational institutes, 42.6 % have graduated from faculty of educations, only 3.9 % of them have master‘s degrees and 7.8 % of them do not belong to any of these categories. Seniority varies from 3 years to 40 years. Findings and conclusions. The comparison of the participants‘ opinions that are related to organizational citizenship and their leaders‘ opinions about leadership styles according to gender and branch variations has been made by using t test. Participants‘ opinions regarding laissez-faire leadership style vary according to the gender variation [t(202) 3.037; p<0.05].Female teachers ( x 45.62) have more positive point of views about the organizational citizenship behaviors when it is compared to male teachers ( x 43.39). On the other hand, when branches are taken into consideration, the participants‘ opinions relating to transformational leadership style vary according to gender [t(202)2.240; p<0.05]. Class teachers ( x 96.59) have more positive views compared to branch teachers ( x 90.29). The participants‘ perceptions relating to the transformational leadership dimension have varied in a significant differences according to the level of education [χ2 (4) 12,471, p < .05].Considering the average ranking order, the highest average belongs to educational institute graduates, on the other hand, those who graduate without completing their bachelor‘s degrees are identified to have the lowest average. The teachers who have participated in the research have various perceptions about the laissez-faire leadership style, which have gone under a change according to their seniority [χ2 (3) 20,891, p < .05].When ranking order averages are taken into consideration, those who have over 30 years seniority have the highest average; on the other hand, the lowest average belongs to those who have seniority from 11 to 20 years. This finding can be interpreted that advancing in seniority can cause expected leadership behaviors to reduce. There is a positive and meaningful relationship between administrators‘ transformational leadership style and teachers‘ organizational citizenship behaviors. (r, 387, p <.005).When determination coefficient (r20, 15) is taken into consideration, 15 % of total variance can be said to have resulted from transformational leadership style. Besides, both administrators‘ transactional leadership style and teachers‘ organizational behaviours have a meaningful and positive relationship (r, 320, p <.005).When determination coefficient (r20, 10) is considered, 10 % of total variance is due to transactional leadership style. If we examine the relationship between the sub dimensions of two scales, there is a meaningful and positive correlation between transformational leadership dimension and transactional leadership dimension (r, 799 p <.005).That we are not able to differentiate two different leadership styles precisely can explain this conclusion. Likewise, there is a meaningful and significant correlation between laissez-faire leadership style and transactional leadership style (r, 346, p <.005). Transformational leaders are assumed to stimulate followers to perform beyond the level of expectations (Bass, 1985). Therefore, it seems likely that transformational leaders, by stimulating followers‘ organizational citizenship behavior (Podsakoff et al., 1990), enhance quality and quantity of follower performance. A transformational leader provides meaning, and thereby makes followers identify with the respective goals and problems (Shamir, House & Arthur, 1993). Prior research provided consistent support for a positive relationship between transformational leadership and OCB across different settings (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Paine & Bachrach, 2000).
SourceKuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi