Phytotoxins produced by Pestalotiopsis guepinii, the causal agent of hazelnut twig blight
Zonno, Maria Chiara
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The main lipophilic phytotoxic metabolite was isolated from the culture filtrates of Pestalotiopsis guepinii, the fungus causing twig blight of hazelnut. The metabolite was spectroscopically identified as pestalopyrone, a pentaketide that it was originally identified as a minor toxin produced by Pestalotiopsis oenotherae. The toxic activity of pestalopyrone was compared with that of nectriapyrone, a structurally related monoterpenoid recently isolated from Phomopsis foeniculi, and that of the new dihydro-derivative of nectriapyrone. The high phytotoxic activity of nectriapyrone and its dihydro-derivative on three non host plants, showed that the double bond of the 1-methylpropenyl group at C-6 of the aromatic ring is inessential for its activity, while the much lower activity of pestalopyrone showed that the methyl group at C-3 of the same ring is an important structural feature. The high molecular weight hydrophilic phytotoxins produced by this fungus are reported for the first time.