Altitudinal changes in the content of bioactive substances in Hypericum orientale and Hypericum pallens
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Altitudinal changes in the content of hypericin, pseudohypericin, hyperforin, adhyperforin, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, 2,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, amentoflavone, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, avicularin, rutin, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin among Hypericum orientale L. and Hypericum pallens Banks and Sol. populations from Northern Turkey were investigated for the first time. Thirty flowering individuals were collected from five different altitudes (400, 950, 1,150, 1,620 and 2,150 m) for H. pallens and six different altitudes (500, 1,150, 1,650, 2,100, 2,720 and 3,250 m) for H. orientale. The plant materials were dried at room temperature and subsequently assayed for chemical contents by HPLC. All chemicals were detected in both species at various levels depending on altitude of growing sites except for caffeic acid which was absent in H. pallens. It was found that plants from higher altitudes produced significantly higher amount of the bioactive compounds tested. The results were discussed as a possible protective response of plants to the different abiotic stress factors as high ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation and low temperature which were prevalent in higher altitudes.