Population Variability of Main Secondary Metabolites in Hypericum lydium Boiss. (Hypericaceae)
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In the present study, we investigated the variation in the content of naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin, phloroglucinol derivatives hyperforin and adhyperforin, the phenolic acids as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and the flavonols, namely, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, avicularin, rutin, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, and biflavonoid amentoflavone among wild H. lydium Boiss. populations from five different growing sites of Turkey for the first time. The aerial parts representing a total of 30 individuals were collected at full flowering and dissected into floral, leaf and stem tissues. After dried at room temperature, the plant materials were assayed for chemical contents by HPLC. The populations varied significantly in the content of chemical compounds. Among different plant parts, flowers were found to be main repository site of hyperforin, adhyperforin, hypericin, pseudohypericin, amentoflavone, quercetin, avicularin, rutin and (+)-catechin accumulations whereas rest of the compounds tested were accumulated primarily in leaves in all growing localities. The stems were the least accumulative organ that did not yield hyperforin, adhyperforin and rutin. The chemical diversity among the populations and plant parts is discussed as being possibly the result of different environmental, morphological and genetic factors.