Effects of Feeding Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) With Industrial Sugars Produced by Plants Using Different Photosynthetic Cycles (Carbon C-3 and C-4) on the Colony Wintering Ability, Lifespan, and Forage Behavior
MetadataShow full item record
In the study, 130 honey bee colonies fed with different levels (5, 20, and 100 liters/colony) of various industrial commercial sugars, including High-Fructose Corn 85 (Fructose-85), High-Fructose Corn 55 (Fructose-55), Glucose Monohydrate (Glucose), Bee feed, and Sucrose syrups, for 2 mo were compared with colonies fed with no sugar (control) in terms of their colony development of worker bee population, hive weight, wax production, wintering ability, foraging behavior, and lifespan of worker bee. Utilization of industrial sugars by honey bee colonies showed differences in terms of colony performance and behavior parameters. Honey bees did not use Glucose heavily, resulting in 4% increase in worker bee loss in winter and 46% decrease in marked worker bee numbers over time when compared to the control. Sucrose syrup had a positive effect on wintering ability, wax production, and hive weight. While Sucrose had a positive effect (3-4%) on wintering ability, the 100 liters/colony sugar syrups of all other sugars had negative effects (6-15%). Sugars containing high levels of monosaccharide were not used effectively by honey bee colonies, whereas the sugars containing fructose and glucose at rates of 40 and 30% (Bee feed and Fructose-55), were utilized effectively. The lifespan of worker bees decreased over time in the 100 liters/colony of all sugars syrup. In conclusion, except Glucose, other industrial sugars can be used for promoting colonies at the beginning of the season (in spring). Industrial sugars except sucrose should not be used in order to meet carbohydrate needs of the colonies in winter.